Also, how operant and classical conditioning as well as observational learning are a factor in developing Sally’s phobia will be covered.

To monitor the development of a child to the age of 4-5 (used as evidence for the Oedipus complex) This was a case study; this means a range of information was collected in different ways.

Or in other words, Hans witnessed a horse fall and collapse in the street.

Another example is in Watson's experiment where a boy was exposed simultaneously to rats and a …

To refresh the reader's memory, Little Hans was a 5-year old boy who developed a horse phobia. His phobia only occurred when horses were pulling carts, not to horses in general, which should be the case if Freud’s explanation was correct and so it seems more likely his fear was a conditioned response. To the boy, the very sound of a horse brought a feeling of fear. A further, and simpler, explanation for Hans' phobia is that he was classically conditioned to fear horses. Freud's interpretation of little Hans, who developed fear of horses after seeing one horse fall and bleed, is an example of phobia development by classical conditioning (Mischel, 1993, p. 299-300). Explaining Phobias Within this paper Sally a 23 year old woman with a dog phobia will be discussed. only one piece evidence acquirement of phobia. Today, researchers have put forth other theories about the cause of Hans's phobia. Hans himself explained his phobia developed after he witnessed a serious accident involving a horse and cart moving at high speed.

Freud interpreted the fear of horses as an outcome of the Oedipal conflict; Hans desired his mother sexually, wished his father out of the way, and, fearing his father's … Additionally, how extinction and tenets of cognitive theory can help Sally overcome her dog phobia will be explained. One of his chief critics was John B. Watson (1878-1958), a psychologist and the founder of behaviorism, a school of psychology that focuses on how behaviors are learned and influenced by the environment.
1. hans phobia easily explained terms classical conditioning 2. case study concerns one individual and can't be generalised to the wider population 3. lack of objectivity- hans father and freud interpreted evidence according to their expectations about origins of phobias

Hans then generalised this fear to all horses. A case study to understand Hans fear of horses and to treat it. This type of phobia can be explained using classical conditioning. Classical conditioning Freud thought that phobias were caused by deeply hidden conflicts in the mind.
A major problem with Freud's explanations are that they are androcentric and ethnocentric. This is the conditioned stimuli as it is learned from the unconditioned stimulus that was the very scene that began his phobia on that fateful day.

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