Ignoring the correction at an elevation of 900 feet causes a distance error of about 10 ppm (parts per million). This error, of course, increases with elevation. Horizontal Collimation Error in Total Station. After mistakes have been detected and eliminated from the measurements, the remaining errors are usually classified either as systematic or random error depending on the characteristics of errors. If any error deviates from the mean by more than the maximum permissible error, it is considered as a gross error and the measurement is rejected. Horizontal collimation error exists when the optical axis of the theodolite is not exactly perpendicular to the telescope axis. Total Station Errors. It is also integrated with microprocessor, electronic data collector and storage system. Procedures The directional method will be used exclusively for the control survey, That means your measurements will be practically error-free, even using only one telescope face. The mean angle is then equal to the sum of the total angle divided by the number of observations. A Total Station is modern, automated and much more complicated combination of theodolite integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM), microprocessor with an internal data storage or external data collector. Angles and distances are measured from the total station to points under survey, and the coordinates (X, Y, and Z or northing, easting and elevation) of surveyed points relative to the total station position are calculated using trigonometry and triangulation.

Check your user manual for specifics on how to determine and store these errors.

The total station will then automatically take these errors into consideration whenever you measure an angle. To test for horizontal collimation error, point to a target in face one then point back to the same target in face two; the difference in horizontal circle readings should be 180 degrees. If the survey not at sea level, using sea level pressure introduces a systematic error. By gisresources; April 26, 2014; 3 Comments; Image Source: Topcon. Total station is a surveying equipment combination of Electromagnetic Distance Measuring Instrument and electronic theodolite.
The instrument can be used to measure horizontal and vertical angles as well as sloping distance of object to the instrument. May 2005 SURVEYING EQUIPMENT, MEASUREMENTS AND ERRORS 3.1(5) Repetition Method Successive measurements of an angle can be accumulated.

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