Swiss scholar Zaccaria Giacometti—a close relative to the famous artist Alberto—sought to identify “eternal” norms of the Swiss Constitution as early as 1949, in his influential treatise on Swiss constitutional law. However, it does not radically change the structure of the Swiss Federation, but integrates the accumulated amendments since 1874 into a new text (‘Nachführung der Bundesverfassung’).



1- The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 29 May 18741 (138) is repealed.

23 Freedom of association 1 Freedom of association is guaranteed. 2 Every person has the right to form, join or belong to an association and to partici- pate in the activities of an association. 14 Colonel John A. Martin, A Plan for Establishing and Disciplining a National Militia in Great Britain, Ireland, and in All the British Dominions of America (London, 1745), pp. Bill of Right: A major change affect by the new Swiss Constitution has been the incorporation of a detailed bill of Rights.Under Title 2 chapter 1 and 2 and article 7 to 40, the new constitution describes the basic, civil, social and political rights of the Swiss people.

The new constitution was accepted with a majority of 15½ cantons (including Lucerne!). AMENDMENT PROCEDURE • The amendment procedure of Swiss Constituion is classified into two distinct methods METHOD 1: PROCESS OF TOTAL REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION : A total revision of the constitution means the adoption of a new or totally revised Constitution.

Imagine if a one-time vote of 51% of the electorate were all that were need to amend the U.S. Constitution. 14 Colonel John A. Martin, A Plan for Establishing and Disciplining a National Militia in Great Britain, Ireland, and in All the British Dominions of America (London, 1745), pp. The committee that submitted the popular initiative stated that the amendment of the Swiss Constitution was necessary to preserve direct democracy and provide legal certainty. The new constitution is a complete revision ('Totalrevision') of the text which does not, however, change the structure of the Swiss Federation under its former constitution 1874.

In most constitutional amendment procedures, the legislature needs to pass an amendment law with a greater majority than is required for ordinary legislation. 212-13. Ammendment Procedure in SWITZERLAND,UNITED KINGDOM AND FRANCE 1.

According to this adopted constitutional amendment, the confederation and the cantons are obliged to provide within their competences basic health care of high quality, which is accessible for everybody. The Swiss Confederation in the Eyes of America’s Founders 37 13 Stanyan, An Account of Switzerland, pp. Keywords: Direct democracy, Swiss constitution, Switzerland, unconstitutional amendment doctrine, European human rights law, judicial review Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation Dixon, Rosalind, The Swiss Constitution and a Weak-Form Unconstitutional Amendment Doctrine? xxvi-xxviii, xxxviii, xxxix-xii.

3 No person may be compelled to join or to belong to an association. Local toll station on some 400 roads and bridges within Switzerland were closed in 1849, the Swiss Franc was reestablished as common currency in 1850.

Proposals are being considered to amend the Swiss constitution to require mandatory human rights due diligence for companies based in Switzerland. 8. The new constitution is a complete revision (‘Totalrevision’). xxvi-xxviii, xxxviii, xxxix-xii. A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a polity, organization or other type of entity.Amendments are often interwoven into the relevant sections of an existing constitution, directly altering the text. Rather, the new text consolidates the old constitution and its many amendments ('Nachführung der Bundesverfassung'). Such details have also been made the part of the Constitutional Law as are normally regulated through statutes in other countries.

The initiative would have amended the Swiss Constitution to explicitly state that the Swiss Constitution is the supreme law of the land and has precedence over international law, with the exception of jus cogens (peremptory norms). This video is unavailable.

Art. The Swiss Parliament would not have passed such a law after open and public deliberation, but a popular referendum easily allowed the public to be stampeded into amending the Swiss Constitution.

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