2014 south napa earthquake
The relative motion on this fault is not well known but thought to be about 1 mm/yr (0.04 in/yr). (Public domain.). A shaking intensity of VII-VIII is described as strong to severe, and very likely woke up all but the most heavy of sleepers. Email. Following the South Napa Earthquake on August 24, 2014, the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) convened a small team of researchers to develop an approach for studying the resilience of businesses impacted by major earthquakes. The length of the rupture was about 12.5 km (8 mi), and scientists measured up to 46 cm (18 in) of slip. Results suggest the West Napa Fault and the Franklin Fault (to the southeast) may be continuous at depth. The shaking causes the shifting of below-surface features that may temporarily (and sometimes permanently) change the flow from a spring or even stop the flow. (Public domain.). To assist the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) with response and recovery after the quake, the USGS and its scientific partners prepared a report with details of fault afterslip, shaking and damage in the city of Napa downtown area, and fault hazards of the West Napa Fault System, as well as associated geospatial information and imagery. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data. Recent advances in technology let to more rapid assessment of the nature and effects of this quake, showcasing significant advances since the previous big quake in the San Francisco Bay area in 1989 – the magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. It provides an excellent example for studying crustal strain associated with the earthquake cycle of a strike-slip fault with clear societal relevance. These activities resulted in a comprehensive understanding of fault motion and ground response, in ways that could not have been imagined the last time (1989) there was a large quake in the San Francisco Bay Area. The 2014 South Napa earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake came very close to shutting down the Forebay intake system. Much of the fault appears to be smoothly slipping (afterslip) with no stuck spots that would usually fail in aftershocks. Numerous vehicles were trapped by fallen carports at the Charter Oaks apartments on Browns Valley Road in Napa, Calif., following the South Napa earthquake Sunday morning, Aug. 24, 2014. Some fault strands that broke in residential areas and damaged homes, had not previously been mapped. It may extend further north or south and may connect with other fault zones. Scientists found that some of the fault segments that ruptured on the morning of August 24 had been previously mapped as part of the West Napa fault system, but the rupture also extended northward where no faults had been mapped before. Inspection of the buildings after the earthquake yielded 100+ red-tagged structures, meaning immediate rehabitation is too dangerous. This is not an unusual phenomenon in areas with natural springs and geothermal features. Nicholas George looks under a buckled highway just outside Napa. Key Recovery Factors for the August 24, 2014, South Napa Earthquake. They walked across the landscape to trace where the fault had ruptured the Earth’s surface, and mapped the earthquake surface rupture and post-earthquake afterslip, in great detail using mobile laser scanning (a truck-mounted Lidar system), alignment arrays (such as creepmeters that directly measure extremely small fault movements), GPS measurements, and satellite-based radar surveys (InSAR and UAVSAR). A smaller magnitude 5.0 earthquake on the same fault had damaged the city of Napa in 2000. Existing fault maps show that the Franklin Fault extends southward to the Calaveras Fault zone and the West Napa Fault extends north of the seismic array. One year ago, the largest earthquake in over 25 years hit the San Francisco Bay Area, causing significant damage in California’s famous Napa Valley. The Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake of August 24, 2014, produced complex and extensive surface faulting and other ground deformation features. Predictions included broad spectrum events for 8/25/14 at 1413 UTC. Hydrograph showing stream flow in cubic feet per second on USGS streamgage on Sonoma Creek near Agua Caliente, from about August 23 – September 13, 2014. (see directivity). In response to this earthquake, the Special Projects task of the National Earthquake Technical Assistance Program (NETAP) under FEMA Contract HSFE60-12-D-024 with the Applied Technology Council (ATC) For example, the surprising amount of afterslip observed gave scientists a new way to look at and forecast continuing hazards in the weeks to months, after the earthquake occurred. map with 41,356 responses as of this writing. The M6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred at 3:20 a.m. on August 24th, 2014. These maps are used by federal, state, and local organizations, both public and private, for post-earthquake response and recovery, public and scientific information, as well as for preparedness exercises and disaster planning. USGS geologists and geophysicists, along with their colleagues from federal, state, and local government agencies and academia, started conducting field work immediately after the earthquake. In addition, a M3.0 earthquake occurred on August 5, 2014, 19 days before the M6.0, which, in retrospect, some scientists/seismologists might consider a foreshock. Click on a pin on the map to see more information. It caused much damage and injured many. There was no evidence for the shaking being strongly amplified in any particular pockets of the downtown area. August 28, 2014 Sunday morning, the San Francisco Bay area awoke to shaking; a 6.0 magnitude earthquake, California's strongest since the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake… The computed instrumental intensities agreed well with those reported by residents. The crosses and letters indicated cross-sections not shown in this image. Symbol size represents earthquake magnitude, and fill color represents depth. The magnitude 6.0 earthquake occurred early in the morning on August 24, 2014, on the West Napa Fault. After the 2014 South Napa Earthquake, approximately half the households in the city of Napa and in western Vallejo that reported an injury stated that the injury occurred dur-ing cleanup activities. Copy Link. The Did You Feel It? Skip Links. A strong, 6.0-magnitude earthquake jolted Northern California yesterday (Aug. 24) at 3:20 a.m. local time. The same could be said for the tornados in the midwest and south, and hurricanes in the southeast coastal areas. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Tenants After the 2014 South Napa Earthquake To aid tenants who have been affected by the 2014 South Napa Earthquake. Afterslip forecast hazard map of the Browns Valley neighborhood and surrounding area in Napa, Calif. Olivia Allen-Price. But this was no small earthquake, and as the small representative sample of Jawbone© data shows, many residents had trouble going back to sleep after this one. Engineers and scientists determined that the worst-damaged buildings resulted from a combination of: The South Napa earthquake caused this ground surface rupture running through a viineyard near Buhman Road, Napa Valley, California. Sometimes a single fault segment will slip and cause an earthquake, and other times many fault segments slip in unison, causing a larger earthquake. ), Locations of the traces of tectonic surface faulting produced by the South Napa earthquake overlain on an aerial photograph. The "Did You Feel It?" The South Napa earthquake occurred on Sunday, 24 August 2014 at 3.20 am local time at a depth of 10.7 km, having MW 6.0 and causing significant damage to unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings South Napa Earthquake Photos. The first PAGER Assessment (providing fatality and economic loss impact estimates) was issued 13 minutes after the earthquake, and accurately forecast a low level of human casualties, but significant economic losses in the area. LOS ANGELES _ In a land where the mildest rumble elicits an anxious question _ "Did you feel that?" Damaged unreinforced masonry building on Main St. in downtown Napa. No data point selected. Hurricane Marie peaked on 8/24 at 21 UTC - about 2 hours from the Peru earthquake. An earthquake measuring an estimated 6.0 struck southern Napa County at 3:20 a.m. on Aug. 24, 2014 with widespread reports of damage throughout … The epicenter of that earthquake was 20 km (12 mi) NNW of the South Napa epicenter, and also on the West Napa fault system. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data, map of the distribution of shaking that they felt, Earthquake Strengthening of Cripple Walls in Wood-Frame Dwellings, the rupture direction along the fault - to the north and updip towards Napa. In response to the earthquake, California Earthquake Clearinghouse established a physical clearinghouse location in Napa, CA from August, 24 to August 26, 2014. tests for the 2014 South Napa earthquake. The California Geological Survey (CGS) is currently remapping the West Napa Fault System in concert with fault excavation (trenching) studies carried out by the USGS and CGS to evaluate the prehistoric record of rupture on the various fault strands. The earthquake woke people throughout northern California, in cities as far away as Sacramento and Santa Cruz. The team comprised a diverse mix of perspectives and backgrounds, including Previous smaller earthquakes in the area also triggered relatively few aftershocks for their size, suggesting that this area doesn’t produce many aftershocks. All of the faults and/or imagery lineaments shown as heavy green lines on this map may be considered to have a low level of afterslip hazard. Also, fault strands that had been mapped prior to this earthquake were not thought to be highly hazardous. the wood-frame houses that were damaged were older ones that had not been retrofit (see links below for retrofitting information). In the case of re trospective full-waveform inversions, a network with station spacing of 10km within the epicentral distanc e of 30km is able to provide adequate stable key source parameters if the preestimated hypocenter and fault ori entation are accurate of ±5km and ±15°, respectively. The following summary is what USGS (and USGS-funded) scientists have learned from the data one year after the earthquake. A few homes even shifted off of their foundations, which can be due to the failure of the cripple walls, which drop the floor to the foundation and sometimes allow houses to slide off the foundation. (Public domain. In addition, a M3.0 earthquake occurred on August 5, 2014, 19 days before the M6.0, which, in retrospect, some scientists/seismologists might consider a foreshock. The South Napa Earthquake caused extensive damage through both ground shaking and surface cracking (rupture). ), These two photos showing evidence of afterslip were taken where the fault crosses Highway 12 (south side of the highway) at Cuttings Wharf Road. The sharp rise starting on August 24 reflects an increased streamflow due to the South Napa Earthquake. Pavement buckling and tented sidewalk resulting from compressional forces at north end of main fault rupture, Sandybrook Lane, Napa California. Mapped faults and seismicity (magnitude 3+, 1947-2007) prior to the August 24, 2014 South Napa earthquake. The discharge of springs and groundwater to these streams began within an hour after the earthquake, increasing intermittently from 0.1 to nearly 3 cubic feet per second within a couple of weeks. Warmer colors represent stronger shaking. Some residents noticed a difference in the amount of water being discharged from natural springs. Afterslip rates decreased dramatically in the months following the earthquake and is still being monitored by the USGS. Geologic Hazards Science Center, Golden, Colorado. The 2014 South Napa earthquake was the first large earthquake (Mag 6) to occur within the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS network since installation. The South Napa Earthquake provided a valuable reminder to engineers and the public of what they should expect from time to time when they live in earthquake country. The numbers of aftershocks following the earthquake was relatively low for an earthquake of this size, and in contrast to other large Californian earthquakes, the aftershock locations do not clearly outline the main fault rupture surface. The highest intensities were MMI VII-VIII in the city of Napa and extending a littler farther north. The drought-induced low water table and dry ground inhibited landslides and liquefaction that can occur during earthquakes of this size, sparing the area greater damage than could have been. Once fully implemented in the western U.S., the advance warnings of a few seconds up to a minute or more provided by the ShakeAlert system can be enough to slow public transit systems, open fire-house doors, and allow people to “Drop, Cover and Hold On.” Although there were no trains running at 3:20 a.m. when the earthquake happened, the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system’s automated train-stopping system did successfully activate when the warning was received. In the month after the mainshock, there were 80 aftershocks of magnitude greater than or equal to 1.8. The seismic hazard posed by the West Napa Fault System is still being evaluated. It was the largest earthquake to hit the Bay Area since the 1989 World Series quake. Key Recovery Factors for the August 24, 2014, South Napa Earthquake The three largest were a M3.9 on August 26, a M3.2 a week after the mainshock on August 31, and then a M4.1 10 months later on May 22, 2015. Initially, the fault afterslip was rapid and extended into at least the southern part of the Browns Valley neighborhood in the city of Napa. Lidar data were collected to aid specialized work on the South Napa earthquake including: (1) fault afterslip, especially in the Browns Valley residential neighborhood; (2) shaking and correlation to damage such as red- and yellow-tagged … These recordings are being used, in part, to better understand the performance of residences and older masonry buildings that have been retrofitted. The red star is the location of the mainshock. Earthquake Science Center, Menlo Park, California. Office of Communications and Publishing12201 Sunrise Valley DriveReston, VA 20192United StatesPhone: 703-648-4460. USGS issued a forecast for the continuing afterslip for some homes that was included in the report for FEMA. The only other noteworthy earthquake in the Napa area in the recent past (since 1973) was the M4.9 Yountville earthquake on September 3, 2000. Ground shaking was significant with accompanying maximum Modified Mercalli Intensities between VIII and IX. Damage to structures decreased with distance from the rupture. State Sen… Ongoing fault movement along the surface rupture, called afterslip, continued for several months, and caused further damage to foundations and structures. No other surface features were found, such as evidence of liquefaction or landslides. 2014 South Napa Earthquake Retrospective. Data collected from airborne LIDAR were used to look for effects on the ground surface. Almost three years have passed since the 2014 magnitude-6.0 South Napa earthquake. For further details, see Groundwater Effects from Earthquakes. The 2014 South Napa earthquake occurred in the North San Francisco Bay Area on August 24 at 03:20:44 Pacific Daylight Time. Aug 25, 2014. The earthquake's epicenter was a few miles south of Napa … Aftershocks during the first week after the mainshock. This detailed assessment of the South Napa earthquake and the West Napa Fault system helps scientists assess future earthquake hazards in the area so communities can better prepare for them. Observing how seismic waves travel along a complex fault zone can reveal how fault segments might be connected at depth. However, knowledge gained provides new insights into the influence of the sedimentary basin under the Napa area, which can be used in future hazard maps to more accurately forecast earthquake hazards in the area. Immediate Impact The South Napa earthquake was very well recorded and produced a number of strong ground motion recordings that are of considerable interest to the engineering community. It was the biggest temblor to hit the Bay Area since the M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989. The SAFZ is not a simple, single fault, but rather a complex collection of smaller fault segments that collectively accommodate the horizontal movement between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate. This event was of great interest to seismologists, especially at the Berkeley Seismolgical Laboratory. Afterslip causes additional damage to manmade structures, such as roads, but does not release seismic waves and cause shaking. We can use this increased knowledge to make our communities safer and more resilient in future quakes. The earthquake was unusual for the length of surface rupture (8 miles), the amount of surface slip (up to 18 inches), and the large afterslip that followed the earthquake (up to 14 inches). The ground shaking was very strong along the fault and in the Napa Valley. The timing of the earthquake was not only near the end of California’s normally dry season, but also during a multi-year-long severe drought. ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. The first offset measurement was taken the day of the earthquake - about 6 cm (2 in) of right-lateral offset. August 25, 2014 at 8:22 PM The 24 August 2014 Mw 6.0 South Napa earthquake occurred on … Or, try our Real-time Notifications, Feeds, and Web Services . In the days, weeks and months that followed, scientists collected and analyzed data from instruments that recorded the event. The 6.0-magnitude quake struck at 3:20 … Copy Link. Following the event, geologists made more than 1,200 field observations at locations where tectonic faulting and ground failure produced visible deformation that fractured and disturbed the ground surface. Afterslip is a slow movement on the fault, and it is yet unclear whether it is associated with, or independent of, the aftershocks. This lack of ground failure was attributed to the lack of rainfall in the area; a shallower water table would have made the surface material less stable and more prone to ground failure. In the wee hours of Sunday morning at 3:20am, the residents and wineries of Napa Valley were shaken by a magnitude 6.0 earthquake, the largest in the San Francisco Bay Area in over 25 years, and the first since the M7.9 1906 earthquake to rupture on the surface. The epicenter was located approximately 9 km south of the city of Napa in northern California. These measurements are probably minimums for the zone since the deformation was probably distributed over an area of several meters wide. Caption: A map shows the location of the August 24, 2014 earthquake just south of Napa, California. This earthquake was unusual for its size, because it had a relatively long surface rupture of 12.5 km (8 mi) with a significant amount of surface slip (up to 46 cm; or 18 in). Hydrograph showing stream flow in cubic feet per second on USGS streamgage on Sonoma Creek near Agua Caliente, from about August 23 - September 13, 2014. Cullen 328 Let's discuss it 05:47, 26 August 2014 (UTC) This article in the San Jose Mercury News, published about 80 miles away, specifically mentions that "South Napa Earthquake" is emerging as the accepted name. (Credit: Tim Dawson, California Geological Survey. Our better scientific understanding of the 2014 earthquake sheds light on the nature of earthquake faults and hazards in the region, and will enable communities to be better prepared and better able to withstand the next earthquake. This kind of hydrogeologic response to earthquakes is well known to scientists. The magnitude 6.0 earthquake occurred early in the morning on August 24, 2014, on the West Napa Fault. ), -written by Lisa Wald, U.S. Geological Survey. It also had a large amount of afterslip, and fewer aftershocks than average for an earthquake of its size. 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