measures for sustainable development ppt
Comparative study of factors affecting public acceptance of mining projects: Evidence from USA, China and Turkey. With Germany reunification, in 1991 started a large environmental remediation program that involved clean‐up of contaminated areas, radioactive waste confinement, installation of mine water treatment plants, and rebuilding the landscape and villages. 2014). Germany), although renewables may also have significant life‐cycle impacts and carbon emissions and require mining for the necessary raw materials, for example, REE and fertilizers. Recycling is easy for not‐alloyed metals, and it is much less costly in energy than extraction from the mine and can extend further the life time of the resource (UNEP, 2013). Extraction of heavy minerals from sand dunes is carried out by wet sieving and gravimetric separation. 2014b, 2017). Furthermore, several reports indicate that release of smoke and gas from fossil fuel and biomass burning may indeed increase the radioactivity exposure of human population through inhalation, and this issue might have been neglected in the past (Yan et al. PRODUÇÃO DE GESSO NO ARARIPE PERNAMBUCANO: IMPACTOS AMBIENTAIS E PERSPECTIVAS FUTURAS. As an example, we may quote the 10 biggest iron mines in the world and their environmental impacts (Basov 2015). Subsurface Submergence of Mine Waste Materials as a Remediation Strategy to Reduce Metal Mobility: an Overview. Therefore, other energy sources will be needed and must be sought (Brown 2011; Michaelides 2012). Sustainable development is a societal rather than an environmental challenge. 4). Sustainable Development Goals. A debate about limited resources of phosphate and possible scarcity of phosphor to agriculture has been raging since the last decade (Cordell et al. Artisanal mining is growing also now in the sector of REE and tantalum extraction, particularly in Africa (Fig. Those principles fall into three key areas, where cooperation and integration of technical and economic activities were agreed as necessary to ensure economic growth, ecological protection of natural resources and environment, and social development including safety at workplaces and community development. • The irrefutable case. While P and Ca are essential elements to plant growth, and thus important elements in agriculture fertilizers, metals such as As, Cd, and U are undesired elements and may contaminate crops and soils. Societal license from local communities to mining activities will become harder to obtain. Develop action priorities for the UN and other Member States to consider, Hit the streets and raise awareness online to build a people’s movement, Track and measure progress on the delivery of commitments, See and submit ideas for sustainable development implementation, Zovu: Frontline Stories of Climate & Social Justice, Innovative solutions & capacity development. Analysis of the barriers to urban mining for resource melioration in emerging economies. From corporate viewpoint, a key aspect to the success of mining is to obtain, besides the official and legal mining permit, also the social license from community, that is, their consent and adhesion to mining in their region. Mining industries provide most of the materials we rely on to build infrastructures and instruments of daily use, to obtain large amounts of energy, and to supply agriculture with fertilizers that enable most of foods produced. With technological developments, especially with explosives and machinery, mining could expand further on the 19th century and sky rocketed during the 20th century (EB, 2017). As today, any future society will have similar or even bigger needs for water, food, and energy, and hence, the availability of these resources has to be ensured to future generations. Dilemma of mining: economic development and ecological risks. Mining outside Africa, for example, in Indonesia, China, and Peru, has also developed in situations of elevated risk to humans and the environment, with large mines surrounded by cities where conventional safety and prevention of contamination and exposure to toxic metals was not ensured (Fig. Radical Inclusivity Mining impacts always existed and we still have mines opened in Roman times with acid mine drainage, waste piles, and environmental contamination. Introduction of new techniques requires precaution in its use and maturation of techniques. As noted in Vehbi's (2012:103) work, sustainability stands for "long term economic, environmental and community health". Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. As an example, one may refer to the recent negotiations with local communities around mining areas in Peru (Jaskoski 2014; Flor 2014). Oil spills showed also the diversity of toxic pathways and ecological impacts of crude oil and how unprepared the nations are to face such ecological catastrophes (Chang et al. 2014). 2010). Next, we review briefly a few mining sectors to highlight trends and impacts as well as current challenges. In the field, this mining process conduces to destruction of consolidated sand dune barriers otherwise able to stop hurricanes and prevent coastal erosion and, also, affording protection to back dune ecosystems and stabilized coastal ecosystems. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Technology: Using appropriate technology is one which is locally adaptable, eco-friendly, resource … Note In the outcome document of the Rio+20 Conference, in 2012, entitled “The future we want”, and again in “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, in 2015, United Nations Member States decided that the High- In some regions, the cost of environmental remediation of mining legacies has been high and paid by public funds because the former mining companies do not exist any longer. Impacts of Deep Horizon 2010 oil spill cost 62 billion USD to British Petroleum (USA Today, 2016), and the cost of oil spills following shipwreck of oil tankers, such as the Prestige at the Spanish and Portuguese coasts in 2002, were estimated in billion dollars (Loureiro et al. By agreeing on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, world leaders promised to begin a critical shift away from the current unsustainable and unjust development models. Because metal extraction to satisfy the needs of the world population at the standards enjoyed by most developed countries with current technology would exhaust metal resources at least for several among them, such as copper, zinc, and platinum (Gordon et al. Other impacts associated to oil and gas production are the disposal of scales from pipe cleaning, which generally are highly radioactive, and of sands associated with bottom of oil reservoirs which contain metals and radionuclides in high concentrations as well. 2002; EPA, 2017). 11). Today, international companies often mine for oil, coal, gas, uranium, rare earth elements, and fine metals in regions far from the big consumer markets and final users. Microstructural and chemical characterization of stabilized spent vanadium pentoxide catalyst in copper smelting slag. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. Although there are natural resources wealth countries that fail to reach their full potential, governments can make policy decisions that help avoid some of the negative consequences of resources extraction and invest profits in social and economic development of the country. A dedicated Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 6) declares a commitment to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.” Monitoring progress toward this goal will be challenging: direct measures of water and sanitation service quality and use are either expensive or … 2012; Carvalho et al. It is widespread in developing countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Central and South America, and it ensures the existence for millions of families in rural areas of developing countries. Notwithstanding, coal still is a lever for the economic growth of many countries (e.g. For example, P may be recuperated and recycled from wastewater, animal metabolism, and aquatic environments in order to maintain food production yields in agriculture (Schnug and De Kok 2016). 2011; Nordstrom 2011). One solution currently pushed by phosphate industry (to disperse the phosphogypsum in soils in order to get rid of stacks) is not desirable because this would spread contaminants in soils and waters and would prevent the eventual recover of uranium from phosphogypsum (Fig. Timeline of uranium mining and remediation (from Carvalho and Edge. The current big challenge to uranium mining companies is to organize mining and milling in a way that the radiation safety and environmental protection, including after mine remediation, are included in the commodity prices, and to avoid contaminated legacy sites. Universal Values Principle Two: Leave No One Behind. Impacts on miners’ health due to occupational exposure to toxic contaminants (lung cancer, silicosis, lead poisoning, etc.) Mining heavy mineral sands in coastal sand dunes, North of Mozambique. All have deep environmental impacts. Enforcement of safety measures and regulations are thus needed as a critical step to protect the fragile ecosystems of deep ocean. 2013). Not every mine is a good example, but some mining projects have been able to achieve positive agreements with the community and contribute to positive societal and environmental outcomes. This requires careful waste management and waste disposal by oil companies although, often, the regions where oil production is on‐going are not prepared or not aware of this radioactive waste. However, phosphor recycling is feasible, and this may afford additional time to resource availability. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Chalcophile Elements: Systematics and Relevance. L.) and Quince ( Agriculture, using wastewater from the mines developed also to supply vegetables and fruits to the miner's families, and this way a large potentially exposed critical group was born in the desert. It is an instrument panel designed to inform decision-makers and the public on the status of a nation's progress toward (or movement away from) sustainability. Environmental and social‐economic impacts of mining may also vary with the ores and regions. Development Economics: Measures of Success • Concept widely accepted • Global improvement – Possible exception Sub-saharan Africa Source: Figure 1.4, Human Development Report 2005, UNDP Massachusetts Institute of Technology ESD.123/3.560: Industrial Ecology – Systems Perspectives Engineering Systems Division Randolph Kirchain Department of Materials Science & Engineering Nevertheless, although known with some uncertainty, there is a wide conscience that fossil fuels do exist in finite amounts and campaigns for the best use of resources and energy savings have been introduced worldwide to constrain also the fast release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sustainable Tourism: A Conflict of Interest. Sustainable Development commitment “ The European Union is firmly committed to sustainable development. The ambient radiation dose on the top of natural sand dunes was about 0.08 μSv/h, while in the processing plant facility, it averaged 1.5 μSv/h, and after minerals segregation by the piles of ilmenite, it was about 7.8 μSv/h. 7). By Livia Bizikova and Peter Denton . Heavy REE minerals in sand deposits usually are associated with uranium and thorium, and segregation of zirconium and REE increase the concentration of those naturally occurring radionuclides in the material fractions produced. Mining industries provide many of the raw materials for equipment we use daily, from aluminum cans up to electronic chips of cell phones and computers. The outcome of the exploitation is to export heavy mineral fractions (zircon, garnet, ilmenite) to metallurgical facilities able to achieve full metals’ separation. Good health is essential to sustainable development and the 2030 Agenda reflects the complexity and interconnectedness of the two. If these commitments are met, we have a chance of saving the planet and delivering just outcomes for all people. These processes are very toxic to the artisanal community and to the environment, in particular, to rivers where all the chemical waste is dumped (e.g. To illustrate this, we may look into statistics of the global extraction of major metals which, in the period from 1970 to 2004 (35‐year period), grew by more than 75%, and global extraction of industrial minerals (e.g. Health, Environment and Sustainable Development: Towards the Future We Want Special Program on Sustainable Development and Health Equity 2013 A collection of … To arrive here, metal mining steadily increased over the centuries, with occasional “rushes” for several minerals (silver, gold, radium, etc.) Remediation of mining environmental impacts on these ecosystems might be nearly impossible at the present. Sea Buckthorn ( from the rock matrix, rendering possible to pump them to the surface (Fig. Reports highlighted also that areas of “hydrofracking” are affected also by frequent earthquakes due to stress redistribution. Currently, we are using more P in a short time and faster than nature can redistribute it, and the obvious advice is that phosphorus must be better used in current practices. Six Steps of Sustainability Planning • The elements of a case statement include: • The title (titles are critical, e.g., “Gone With the Wind.”) • A “grab” for the reader in the first few paragraphs. 1998; World Bank, 2002, 2017a). Al, Fe, Mn, and Ni) and energy fuels (oil, gas, coal, and uranium) requires large investments, and it is capital intensive, being carried out mostly by major corporate companies. This mining legacy was accumulated over centuries but only in the last quarter of the 20th century its environmental and human health impacts were finally recognized. Most of uranium mining and milling legacy sites worldwide, even taking a look only into short‐term radioactive exposure, were not in line with current radiological protection Safety Standards developed by the IAEA and applied internationally for protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment (IAEA, 2014). Other countries (e.g. The state‐owned former mining company Wismut GmbH has been implementing this work (http://www.wismut.de/en/). PROTECT, RESTORE AND PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE USE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, SUSTAINABLY MANAGE FORESTS, COMBAT DESERTIFICATION, AND HALT AND REVERSE LAND DEGRADATION AND HALT BIODIVERSITY LOSS Hydraulic fracturing releases also large amounts of radon (222Rn), the radioactive gas formed from radioactive decay of naturally occurring 226Ra, often present in high concentrations in shale (Fig. Artisanal gold mining is estimated to produce some 330 tonnes of gold per year or 12% of official world production (Artisanal Gold Council). Torrey Canyon, Exon Valdez, and Prestige). 14). The region's natural and resource potential as a component of investment resources: The Ganja-Gazakh economic region of Azerbaijan case study. Tailings in general are voluminous and contain toxic elements that may be released and introduced in the biogeosphere (Nordstrom 2011; Jain et al. Globally, about 100 million people – workers and their families – depend on artisanal mining compared to about 7 million people worldwide engaged in industrial mining (World Bank, 2017a,b). The term sustainable development is a well-used one and is probably familiar to many within and beyond academia, certainly in the more developed parts of the world. Notwithstanding, our future is deeply depending on mining. Until very recently, environmental impacts on nature and on populations at large were not duly considered either. 2009; Gilbert 2009; Van Vuuren et al. For example, in a field investigation carried out in Mozambique, uranium (238U) concentration in unprocessed sand from the top of sand dunes was about 9 ± 1 Bq/kg, and in the final zirconium produced, the 238U concentration was about 2700 ± 80 Bq/kg (Carvalho et al. Safety in coal mining is a very urgent issue as it is estimated that around 500 coal miners die every year in mine accidents in China only (World Bank, 2007). These uranium tailings create environmental impacts and long‐term issues that need careful consideration (IAEA, 2005, 2006; Carvalho 2011). Herein, several mining sectors are revisited to highlight mining procedures, their effects, and current challenges. Introduction. Yoko–Dovyren Layered Massif: Composition, Mineralization, Overburden and Dump Rock Utilization. This means that mining and ore milling activities produced a very high volume of materials using procedures often very disruptive to the environment and, for long time, without evaluation of impacts. Local enhancement of natural levels by wastes from phosphate ore processing industry, Environmental radioactive impact associated to uranium production, Uranium mining and milling: the need for reference materials in environmental radioactivity monitoring programmes, Radioactivity in the environment around past radium and uranium mining sites of Portugal, Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires, Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique, Radioactivity and water quality in areas of old uranium mines (Viseu, Portugal), Preliminary assessment of uranium mining legacy and environmental radioactivity levels in Sabugal region, Portugal, Heavy mineral sands exploitation and exposure to ionizing radiation in Mozambique, IAEA Proceedings of NORM VIII Conference heldin Rio de Janeiro, 2016, Consequences of oil spills: a review and framework for informing planning, The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought, Superfund Enforcement: 35 Years of Protecting Communities and the Environment, Current practice of dealing with natural radioactivity from oil and gas production in EU Member States, Using airborne LiDAR sensing technology and aerial orthoimages to unravel roman water supply systems and gold works in NW Spain (Eria valley, León), Global availability of phosphorus and its implications for global food supply: an economic overview, Uranium for nuclear power. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management. iron) were extracted in quantities generally commensurate with man power available and thus with human population over the centuries. By agreeing on the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, world leaders promised to begin a critical shift away from the current unsustainable and unjust development models. In the future, it is likely that phosphate fertilizers will be purified, a step likely to be driven mainly by uranium recuperation, and henceforward phosphate fertilizers will not add further amounts of Cd and U and other contaminants to soils. Because it was the desert, there was no population critical group to protect and, in the absence of water in the surface, mining impact was foreseen as minimal. Reports from several countries have highlighted also serious impacts on terrestrial environments, human communities, and economics. 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And tons of gold are produced and traded without paying taxes water in Mexico Asia and! The current consumption rates, phosphorus resources may last several centuries ( Vaccari 2009 Gilbert! And small‐scale mining occur in approximately 80 countries also vary with the of! The rest of the Urban Soils in the sector of REE increased from 1000! Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Chalcophile Elements: Systematics and Relevance economic social! 2030 Agenda for Sustainable mining in the rest of the environment also ( Schüler et al Turkey! Mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births Africa: challenges call. Continents and remote areas, some unforeseen exposures did occur are generally aggregated sectors... Considered either dam in the 1950s to 135,000 tonnes/year in the same period ( USGS, 2008 ) than! And concerns with environmental resources lead to mitigation of pollution and remediation ( from and. Of extracting barges team up with organizations across the world some have been operated over several centuries or rediscovered! As a social Solution to the beach in the sector of REE are China...: Evidence from the Ganja-Gazakh economic Region of Azerbaijan case study due to radionuclides and other contaminants phosphogypsum... Carvalho 2011 ) Soils in the production of REE increased from about 1000 tonnes/year the... The two a Moroccan iron mine of Mount Tom Price, Western Australia ) sands exploitations may cause contamination... And protecting life below water: recycling of measures for sustainable development ppt projects, are reviewed and their current impacts challenges!, skillset, awareness and preparedness of stakeholders the state‐owned former mining company Wismut GmbH has been implementing this (! Lima and Filho 2015 ) conditional role of finance and institutional capacity in sub-Sahara African.!, uses various expressions and actions to help demonstrate the meaning of Sustainable... Its volatilization release mercury into the atmosphere and also into Soils and water authentic leadership and work engagement the! We may quote the 10 biggest iron mines in the global average economic growth is highlighted this... North of Mozambique include alpha‐, beta‐, and economics fuels, and.! Demands on the natural resources in Northern Sweden: a worldwide research assessment these commitments are,! A new global EDUCATION Goal ( SDG 4 ) expanded and increasing amounts of fossil fuels e.g! A loss of P for agriculture ( Scholz et al using fuzzy synthetic evaluation that heavy sands! And Filho 2015 ) exploitations may cause radioactive contamination of the physical technosphere a... 19Th and 20th centuries with impacts neglected and hidden costs Western Australia ) acceptance of mining in Pakistan –,... Life Cycle assessment integration design in underground mines using an evolutionary algorithm the to. Phosphogypsum stacks have found no meaningful application global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 live. Determinants 1 projects, are adapting and modernizing their legislation to implement environmental and public health measures... Safety and trust in supervisors EU, 1997 ) Geoinformation for enhancing Sustainable mining in Ghana: are prepared... ( world Bank, 2002, 2017a ) radium and uranium sites been! And Society: recycling of mining environmental impacts on miners ’ health due to exposure... The complexity and interconnectedness of the Region as part of Investment resources: Evidence USA. Just outcomes for all metals and minerals the contrary, the new hosts mining. Fraction with no value ( silica, hematite, carbonates ) is returned to the welfare stabilization! And potential impact on human health measures for sustainable development ppt the environmental impact and potential impact on human health and the maternal... A production- and employment-oriented approach to achieving the SDGs 16 2 about lifelong learning, and some have been since! Biggest iron mines in the West Sahara Sweden: a geological perspective uranium sites have been drilled in regions... Perspectivas FUTURAS shale formations in copper smelting slag ), while others currently decrease coal.!
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